Don’t Panic!

In many of the more relaxed civilizations on the Outer Eastern Rim of the Galaxy, the Hitchhiker’s Guide has already supplanted the great Encyclopaedia Galactica as the standard repository of all knowledge and wisdom, for though it has many omissions and contains much that is apocryphal, or at least wildly inaccurate, it scores over the older, more pedestrian work in two important respects. First, it is slightly cheaper; and second, it has the words “DON’T PANIC” inscribed in large friendly letters on its cover. – Douglas Adams, The HitchHikers Guide to the Galaxy

It was reported on Saturday March 29th 2014 that Japan, will introduce a SMS alert system for ballistic missiles to go along with its alerts for earthquakes.  From April 1st, if you have mobile phone or smartphone provided by Docomo, Softbank or au KDDI, you will receive a text alert should North Korea, or should some other aggressor decide to attack Japan.

This news got me thinking about what other alerts the Japanese government might decide to introduce.  I have a few suggestions to improve the alert system.

The Toru Hashimoto will speak alert: This follows the success of the trial run of both the ‘Boris alert’ in London and the ‘Rob Alert’ in Toronto last year.  A much needed alert, I think all will agree to avoid gaffes like “a comfort women system is necessary”.  Every time Mayor Hashimoto calls a press conference or even opens his mouth to a wide, there should be text sent to everyone in Japan, so they can try and stop him speaking, and/or avoid or televisions and newspapers.  Also some sort of sound alert system could be invented, and used on broadcast media, to sound a klaxon, programmed to recognise and drown out the sound of his voice.  I expect the ‘Hashi Alert’ to be popular.

The AKB48 TV show alert:  They are cute, they sing and they dance (almost) and they should also be avoided at all costs.  To avoid a serious bout of nausea and possible death by saccharin induced vomiting, I suggest a text alert be sent to every member of the population over thirteen years of age, at least an hour before AKB48 are due to perform on television. This gives those warned ample time to find something less sickening and more respectable to do, like visit their nearest soapland.  Similar alerts should set up for SMAP, Perfume and One Direction in due course.  During Tokyo 2020, this service maybe temporarily suspended to allow LYM48 to perform at the opening and closing ceremony.

The cooking and celebrity interview TV show alert:  Or ‘cac’ for short.  This is an alert that should be sent to the mobile and smartphone of every foreigner living in Japan. Please do not misunderstand us Japanese broadcast media, you provide us with news, sport, anime and drama, and you let us know if there has been an earthquake or tsunami, we are grateful.  But why are most of your TV shows about cooking and interviewing the celebrity de jour?  All we ask is for an alert an hour before broadcasting, as with the AKB48 alert, to allow us some time to find something else to do.  If it is a TV show with a member of AKB48 making tempura, multiple alerts are possible but not mandatory.

So that’s it.  With these alerts you can live a stress free life in Japan.  Don’t Panic!  Keep calm and stay away from Hashimoto-san, AKB48 and cooking shows.

Juso dreams on the way to Umeda

People come and people go both those you know and those you know not.  Ihara Saikaku after Semimaru

The station is rarely that busy.  A mother and children, a couple of pensioners and a handful of young people wait, their view of the track obscured by the haze of the midday sun.  Moments pass and the train arrives, collects its charges and moves on.  Once onboard the children rush excitedly towards the priority seats, but are prevented on claiming their prize by the mother, who offers it to the pensioners, who, out of politeness, thinking perhaps, that mothers and children have as much right to the seat as them, put up some resistance before arthritis convinces them to accept the seats.

A couple of stations goes by a few more people get on, another pair of pensioners, and a young couple, the female half of whom is expecting, and had been for some time.  Bags are moved, backsides are shuffled and room is made for the Oka-san to be, and she sits next to the pensioners, greeting them with a smile.  The quiet civility of the commute is resumed, broken only by teenager playing a game on her smartphone, and a mother and daughter gossiping.  The white-gloved and black capped train guard takes his march down the carriages, reminding people that use of mobile phones is forbidden, all stop using theirs as he walks, then re-produce them the second he finishes his rounds, which he always does with a bow.

At the next stop, the young folk get off, as they attend the local University, although they are replaced with a greater number of their fellow scholars in training, all of them male, likely bound for some post-seminar libation.  Stations pass, few people gets on and even fewer get off, there is ultimately nothing here really but dwellings.   Another city is, after all, is where we all are destined. And then we arrive at Juso.  The Oka-san to be, her husband, a handful of salarymen and the young scholars leave the train.  Maybe they are bound for other places, maybe for Kyoto or Kobe, if so, the place to change trains would be here.  Or maybe, for the men at least, Juso is their final destination, it being an entertainment district.  If Osaka is ‘the kitchen of Japan’, then Juso is its premier pantry, shops; many selling confectionary as well as izakaya – Japanese pubs and restaurants can be visited by going down the back alley’s near the station and down the pleasing named ‘Friendly Street’.

Perhaps appropriately, Sakaemachi, can be found opposite ‘Friendly Street’.  Down that street, the pink salons, whose existence are heralded by billboards with photos of cute Japanese girls, offer not just rest and relaxation for the harassed salaryman (though not for the foreigner, for him such worlds are forbidden) but also, through the salacious, a complete escape from the everyday drudge of Osakan life.  In Sakaemachi, there is no need to concern yourself with work commitments, bosses, schedules and deadlines, or indeed, in many cases one supposes, wives and children. Whilst down Sakaemachi, one need only be concerned with enjoying the female form on show, and there are many on show, even outside, as some of the girls can be found advertising the services that are offered within. Umeda, with its restaurants, museums, theatres and galleries are for the respectable, for the cheap and cheerful, one turns to Sakaemachi.

On some nights, when there is high volume of men in the carriages, the train seems to be deserted after Juso.

20140328-215412.jpg

A note on ex-pat life: Re-learning the joys of dependency

[T]he virtues that we need, if we are to develop from our animal condition into that of independent rational agents, and the virtues that we need, if we are to confront and respond to vulnerability and disability both in ourselves and in others, belong to one and the same set of virtues, the distinctive virtues of dependent rational animals. – Alasdair MacIntyre, Dependent Rational Animals

As a foreigner living in Japan and a person with a disability, I think a lot about what it means to be independent.  Most would agree that independence is a desirable state, and that achieving independence, whether it is in a physical, emotional, intellectual or financial terms is moral good.

In a recent article for The Japan Times, Tokyo resident William Bradbury opines about being dependent on others as a foreigner living in Japan, saying  “[a]t the outset, moving to Japan makes an infant of us all, regardless of race, sex or creed. “ (Japan Times, March 12 2014).  Being robbed of language, when we first move here, we are dependent on native others:

“If a Westerner happens to have a Japanese partner, it’s easy to become dependent on them when it comes to dealing with problems, translations, ideas for where to go, phone calls with Japanese-only services and so on. When I took the JLPT (Japanese Language Proficiency Test) I saw a colleague, an architect in his home country, struggling to figure out the way to the test hall without the help of his wife. It’s pathetic to complain about being helped, but with requiring assistance in everyday tasks comes a feeling of discomfort — emasculation, even.”  (Japan Times, March 12 2014)

As a foreigner, still relatively new to Japan, whose Japanese language ability is still somewhat lacking, I share Bradbury’s concern. It would obviously be nice to have better understanding of the Japanese language so I could let me intentions, beliefs and desires be known. And yet I can’t quite envisage what independence would look like, and if it is truly a desirable state of affairs.  Is it merely just that, the ability to speak and move around if I wanted?  Quite frankly, I have always been suspicious of the word ‘independence’.  What is it exactly?  Webster’s defines it as “freedom from outside control or support”, it is the idea of self-governance, that at its most basic, we all have the ability to move and think and feel how and what we want.

The reason for my suspicion is that some of us  do not have the ability to control our own body physically, having cerebral palsy means that my body is prone to spasm and shiver whether I want it to or not.  We can of course think what we want, but do we really have emotional self-control, the point of emotions like happiness or sadness is that it can creep up on you.

We forget sometimes that as human beings we are always reliant on other people, even hermit requires that people leave them alone.  No matter how isolated or solitary you think you are, you are in fact dependent on a network of other human beings.  Take, for an example, the activity of cooking a meal for one.  Even if you grew your own vegetables and reared your own cattle, your meal was only made possible by a history of human interaction.  Someone built your cooker for example, made your cutlery, perhaps wrote the recipe, no human being is completely independent.

I suggest that dependency is not merely something that disabled people have to endure, but is a pleasure that everyone, although maybe in particular expats should learn to enjoy, the pleasure of being supported.  It is surely good to communicate with other people?  It is not a sign of weakness to be dependent on others, being dependent is in fact, an essential part of being human.

It Couldn’t Happen Here

Now it almost seems impossible
we’ve found ourselves back where we started from
I may be wrong, I thought we said
It couldn’t happen here
– Neil Tennant and Chris Lowe

I have only been in Japan eighteen months, but I have made one determination, Japan is a decent place to be, all things considered.  The standard of living is high, crime is low, murders are so rare that each one makes the national news, and for someone with passion, hard work and a bit of luck, employment is OK.  A life in Japan is pretty fine all in all, at least I think so.

There are however those who think Japan is a troubled country, that the election of Shinzo Abe is not merely the beginning of a turn to the political right, it is actually the beginning of the end times.  The final taiko drum has sounded, the new mappo era has begun they insist.  In all fairness, all the signs are there.  ‘Abenomics’ promises to make Japan more affluent, and there are some small signs that is succeeding.  Some say though,  that there will be moral decay, ‘Japanese only’ banners will become not only permissible but mandatory at every football match, there will be ‘no foreigner’ convenience stores, dolphin tempura will become the new national dish, the capital will be moved from Tokyo to Taiji to be close to this new industry.  All Japanese born females will have to be members of AKB48 from age sixteen to twenty. And did I mention that everyone’s stopped having sex, so much so that the Abe government has to convince more foreigners to come to Japan to keep population numbers up? Perhaps we can take solace that the last time Japanese body politic thought the end was nigh, it ultimately led to the expulsion of all foreigners save the Dutch during the Tokugawa era.  Yes, they are right, panic, the end is not near its here!

Well, not quite, I’m sure the reader may have noticed more than a smidgen of sarcasm in my words.  Come back, no need to skedaddle quite yet.  Put the passport back in the drawer, stop exchanging Yen for the Yuan you think you’ll inevitably need after the next Asia war ends. Narita will be murder anyway, over-flowing with those trying to escape the apocalypse, at Narita how could we tell the difference between apocalypse and a busy day anyways?  Sit down, open a chu-hi and listen up.

Japan isn’t even near the end times, Japan is doing just fine, or at least it’s on par with the rest of the world, some things are good, some are bad, ultimately it’s nothing that cannot be fixed.  Politically the entire world has been moving to the right.  From the rise of far right groups in Europe, such as UKIP in Britain and the formation of the coalitional government to the Tea Party in America, the election of Shinzo Abe as Prime Minister is part of this trend, yes it is disappointing, but it is not in my view the beginning of a new Japanese fascism, simply Japan doing what the rest of the world is doing, lurching towards the right.

We of course want Japan to be better, to not use terms like ‘Japanese only’, no one should think such behaviour is acceptable.  But there is a tendency for some commentators to exclaim ‘how could this happen here?’, as if Japan should just be better, that racism is worse when it happens here. It would be nice if Japan was simply better, but I feel, an unrealistic expectation.  Japan like everywhere else has idiots, which, as an atheist about utopias I find reassuring.

And I truly believe the J-League did a really good job of dealing with the issue from which other football associations could learn.  I cannot imagine the Football Association of Great Britain imposing such a ruling on say a team like Manchester United, to ban the crowd from a match as punishment, there’s just too much money in it, and that, alas is what much of sport is about in the end.

So be proud of Japan today, I am, it responded well.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

‘There’s Only One Debito Arudou’: On Football Hooliganism in Japan

The way I see it, he said, foreigners are perfectly all right.  I know lots…Many of my friends are foreigners. And yet, and yet.  When it comes to inner feelings, well then, I just wonder, you see. After all, we Japanese understand each other. – Donald Richie, Tokyo Nights

On Saturday 8th March 2014, at a football match at Saitama Stadium, the match between Urawa Red Diamonds or ‘Reds’ and Sagan Tosu, some fans of the Reds hung a banner over the entrance to the stadium.  The banner read in English ‘Japanese only’.  The banner was taken down relatively quickly, and on March 13th it was reported that the J-League ordered to play one match without spectators as punishment.

As Debito Arudou notes in the Japan Times, none of the Japanese media outlets were quick to express distaste at the banner:

“None of the initial reports called out the incident for what it was: racial discrimination (jinshu sabetsu). News outlets such as Kyodo, Asahi, Mainichi, Yomiuri, AP, AFP, Al-Jazeera — even The Japan Times — muted their coverage by saying the banner “could apparently be considered/construed/seen as racist.” (Well, how else could it be construed? Were they trying to say that “only the Japanese language is spoken here”?) Few ran pictures of the banner to give context or impact.” (Japan Times, March 12 2014)

Perhaps, it is because I hail from Britain, where such distasteful incidents at football are more common that my approach to this is a tad more pragmatic then Arudou’s, but it certainly didn’t surprise me that news outlets did not unequivocally call it out for the racism it so clearly is. News journalism, at least decent news journalism, should not really be in business of making moral judgements, yes it was distasteful, but is it being distasteful actually news?  Maybe, but I much prefer the news outlets focus on establishing the facts of what happened, rather than on expressing moral outrage.  Arudou is quite right, there is no non-racist way to use the term ‘Japanese only’ the phrase has indeed “long been the exclusionary trope for Japan’s xenophobes”, there is no argument against that, but a news organization has to be concerned with establishing facts, as the people who put up the banner could quite easily sue for defamation.  It is frustrating but ultimately wiser to cover all the bases.  Ultimately, the banner-erecters condemn themselves with this from the Yomiuri:

“The three Reds’ supporters who made the banner were quoted as saying during an investigation by the club: “The area behind the goal post is our domain. We don’t want to see other people, especially foreigners, entering that area.” (Japan News, 14 March 2014)

Was it is simply team pride got out of hand?  I agree with Arudou that the intentions of the author of the banner do not matter.  That phrase ‘Japanese only’ has too long a history, and, if it was just meant to be a psycho out for the opposing team why not go with ‘Reds only’? Ultimately, the Urawa Reds faced sanctions from the J-League, condemnation in editorials from the Yomiuri and the Japan Times followed in its wake.  So it’s all good.  Well almost, Arudou would like to see condemnation from FIFA:

“Anyplace else and soccer governing body FIFA would probably take swift action to investigate and penalize offenders in line with its policy of zero tolerance for racism, as has been done in the past, most recently in China. In January, the Hong Kong Football Association got fined for shirking its responsibility to stop racial discrimination against Filipino supporters by Hong Kong national team fans during a “friendly” match.” (Japan Times, March 12 2014)

I not aware of the facts of that case, but I can offer, I believe a comparative case, that of the player Nicolas Anelka, a striker for West Bromwich Albion, who in December 2013, celebrated a goal by performing a Nazi salute.  The Football Association of Great Britain imposed a five match ban, and has sent a request to FIFA that the ban be applied to world matches; FIFA is considering the request as of March 18th. If the request is accepted, Anelka would be banned from playing for the French national team for five matches (he was a regular player, but has apparently retired).

However, it is mistake to view FIFA, as I feel Arudou does, as some kind of UN for football teams.  Yes, it is a governing body; it ensures that the football played in one national league is played according to the same rules as another.  J-League players can’t start picking up the ball unless FA players can also.  Each national football association can request that their sanctions should also apply to the international game, but they do not regularly intercede on deciding sanctions for national games, it relies on the judgement and action of national associations, interceding only where action is lacking, as in the case of Hong Kong.  And what could FIFA do in the case of the Urawa Reds anyway?  Ban the crowd at further games, but that would ultimately not be in the interest of the national game, unless players were to start using the term ‘Japanese only’, it is difficult to see what sanctions would be appropriate.

And truly, as racism goes, if you want to see how it is done properly, I suggest paying close attention to the British Premier league, and the European game, where for example, players Luis Suarez and John Terry have served bans for racist abuse.  At the time of writing this, both are still players in a national team.

Ultimately, I take solace in the fact that Sagan Tosu beat the Urawa Reds by one goal.

A Note on the Disaster in Japan

The disaster ruins everything, all the while leaving everything intact. It does not touch anyone in particular; “I” am not threatened by it, but spared, left aside. – Maurice Blanchot, Writing of the Disaster

You would think such a day would tremble to begin . . . – Thomas Harris, Hannibal

I often get asked about the March 11 disaster, or people wonder why I have not written about it.  I’ve always been reticent to do so, since I wasn’t living in Japan at the time.  I was thinking about moving here and joining my wife, although nothing was set in stone.  Living nine hours behind Japan, I was asleep at the time of the earthquake, since it was 5:46 AM. I was still living a rather vampire-esque student existence after my PhD, so when I finally got up around midday the story had already been passed over. The tsunami had happened, but there is only so much you can report after that, although the BBC News kept showing the footage of the NHK offices shaking at the moment of the quake, with TV’s turning off and papers flying everywhere.  But really, the first I knew of it was a phone call from a friend, asking had I heard, and that they hoped my wife was OK, she was living in Tokushima at the time, way down south on Shikoku Island, so was fine.

I suppose one of the possible reasons people ask me for my view is because, as well as being a resident of Japan, I am an academic philosopher.  We rightfully expect philosophy to provide some kind of understanding of events such as wars or disasters; however I have always felt that philosophy, as a response to disasters, seems hollow.  Blanchot, when he wrote his ‘Writing of the Disaster’ had Hiroshima, as much in mind as he did the Holocaust.  His point is of course, that events like Hiroshima can only be commented by those who were not ‘in’ the disaster.  If you were actually directly affected, if you were ‘there’, you would most likely be dead, hence “ “I” am not threatened by it, but spared, left aside.”  This seems unsatisfactory; surely we can talk of a survivor’s experience as being of one who was ‘in’ the disaster.  We might also wonder whether we can really say someone is ‘spared’ because they did not die, and allowing for mental trauma such as post-traumatic stress disorder, we can also ask how ‘intact’ the survivor is.   Blanchot, seems too esoteric, far removed from the wastelands of Hiroshima, Nagasaki or indeed the Tohoku coastline.

However, it maybe that there is something about the disaster, about any disaster anywhere which renders philosophy impotent as a response.    The philosopher Theodor Adorno noted this, that an event, (Adorno had Auschwitz in mind) has the capability of rendering philosophy’s response at best trite or at worst meaningless.  No explanation, no an attempt to make sense of or to understand could do justice to the experience that those who were there and had to endure the disaster. The entire exercise is fruitless some say, you are trying to impose a certain kind of order on something chaotic, to render rational or intelligible that which happened ultimately for no reason, or at least no reason beyond a mere causal explanation of events, the what and who, but not the how.

The danger of resting at that point, to simply acquiesce to philosophy’s powerlessness is that it leads us to yield to the temptation that, say in regard to the situation in Fukushima, that philosophy has nothing to offer. And that would be a mistake, maybe Adorno is right, philosophy should not be sought out to make sense of things, but it may still be able to offer guidance on practical concerns.  Questions about how, post-3/11, Japanese society should respond to the ongoing crisis in Fukushima, I submit, is a conversation to which philosophy can contribute.

19 prefectures lack plans to train welfare workers to deal with behavioral disabilities [Mainichi News]

Here is the original link: Mainichi News & the original Japanese article in the Mainichi Shimbun

The list of prefectures without plans to better train welfare officers is: Hokkaido, Iwate, Akita, Yamagata, Fukushima, Ibaraki, Chiba, Tokyo, Kanagawa, Yamanashi, Aichi, Kyoto, Osaka, Nara, Okayama , Ehime, Kochi , Fukuoka, Nagasaki (the list can only be found in the original Japanese article).

———————————————————-

Nineteen prefectures have failed to heed central government recommendations to train welfare officers in handling people with major behavioral disabilities in fiscal 2014, the Mainichi has discovered.

These strong behavioral disabilities include frequent self-abuse or attacks on others, and are most often seen in people with autism or serious mental disabilities. Recent research has shown that such individuals, who often have trouble expressing themselves, tend to exhibit the problem behavior when they are unable to make themselves understood. Although they are said to account for only around 1 percent of people with mental disabilities, they apparently account for around 10 percent of mentally disabled people who have been abused.

At the Sodegaura welfare center in Chiba Prefecture, a facility for the mentally disabled, abuse of residents by at least 15 staff members was primarily inflicted on those with these serious behavioral disabilities. A 19-year-old resident who died after allegedly being kicked in the stomach by one staff member had shown signs of this type of disability.

The former employee accused in his death was quoted as telling authorities, “When the boy made some noise, I gave him a warning. But he didn’t listen to me and my stress just peaked.” The Chiba Prefectural Government has pointed to “workers’ poor support skills” as one cause behind the abuse.

The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare’s program for training welfare workers to handle patients with major behavioral disabilities consists of 32 hours of lectures, group work and other activities. Instructors for this program were supposed to be trained in the fiscal year ending March 2014, with welfare worker training to begin in fiscal 2014. However, the national government provided no funding for the training and left the decision of whether to go through with it up to the prefectures.

When the Mainichi asked all prefectural governments for their plans regarding the training program, 19 of them said that they had no plans to conduct the training in fiscal 2014. When asked for the reason or obstacles in the way of conducting the training, responses included, “More funds are needed to provide effective training,” from Iwate Prefecture, and, “We want the national government to re-examine the salaries for welfare workers handling people with major behavioral disabilities so that we can acquire workers with expertise,” from Kochi Prefecture.

Meanwhile, Chiba Prefecture is planning to start its own training program, and Shiga Prefecture has, without waiting for financial help from the national government, raised the salaries of welfare workers in charge of people with serious behavioral disabilities.

A representative for the health ministry’s welfare for the disabled division said, “We’d like to consider how we can make the prefectural governments more receptive to running the training programs.”

March 15, 2014(Mainichi Japan)

———————————————————-

強度行動障害:支援対策遅れ…19都道府県が研修予定なし

毎日新聞 2014年03月15日 15時01分(最終更新 03月15日 15時22分)

 自分や他人を傷つける問題行動を示す一方で、施設職員らから虐待被害に遭いやすいとされる「強度行動障害者」を適切に支援する人材を養成するため、国が2014年度から本格実施するよう求めている研修事業について、全体の4割に当たる19都道府県が同年度中の実施を予定していないことが毎日新聞の調査で分かった。地方での対策が遅れている現状が浮かび上がったが、人材育成には国の財政支援が不可欠との指摘も出ている。

15人以上の職員による虐待が発覚した千葉県立障害者支援施設「袖ケ浦福祉センター」では、強度行動障害者に被害が集中していた。職員の暴行を受けた後に死亡した入所少年もこの障害の傾向があった。傷害致死容疑で逮捕された元職員は「騒いだ少年を注意したが、聞いてくれずストレスがピークに達した」と供述しており、県も虐待の一因に「職員の支援スキルの低さ」を挙げている。

厚生労働省の研修事業は、計32時間の講義やグループワークなどを通じ、必要な知識を身につけた専門的な施設職員を養成する内容。今年度は研修の指導者役養成に充て、14年度から各都道府県で本格化させる方針だ。ただし国の予算措置はなく、実施するかどうかは都道府県の判断に委ねられている。

こうした状況を踏まえ、毎日新聞が全都道府県に対応を尋ねたところ、19都道府県が14年度に研修実施予定がないと回答した。実施しない理由や課題を尋ねたところ「効果的な研修をするためには補助金の増額が必要」(岩手県)、「専門的な職員を確保するため、強度行動障害者の支援に対する福祉サービスの報酬を見直してほしい」(高知県)などと国による財政支援を望む声が寄せられた。

一方、県立施設での虐待発覚を受けて独自の研修を開く千葉県や、国の補助に頼らずに報酬を加算した滋賀県のような積極的取り組みもあった。千葉県の担当者は「再発防止のための人材養成が急務で、国の研修より内容を充実させる」としている。

研修事業が広がらない現状について、厚労省障害福祉課は「都道府県が実施に前向きになる対策を検討したい」としている。【田中裕之、松崎真理】

北海道、岩手県、秋田県、山形県、福島県、茨城県、千葉県、東京都、神奈川県、山梨県、愛知県、京都府、大阪府、奈良県、岡山県、愛媛県、高知県、福岡県、長崎県

通常では考えられない頻度で自分や他人を傷つけたり、特定の物事に激しくこだわったりという問題行動をしてしまう障害。明確な判定基準はないが、自閉症を伴う重度の知的障害者らに表れるケースが多い。言葉や身ぶりで自分の考えを表現するのが難しく、近年の研究で、自分の意思が他人に伝わらない場合に問題行動が表れることが分かってきている。知的障害者の1%程度とされる一方で、虐待を受けた障害者の10%前後を占めるともいわれる。

———————————————————-